TAIWAN HRJ
 

演進中的法:一般性意見作為國際人權公約的權威解釋

作者:張文貞(台灣大學法律學院副教授)

摘要:

《公民與政治權利國際公約》及《經濟社會文化權利國際公約》,透過兩公約施行法的實施,已正式成為我國法律體系的一部份。兩公約施行法第3條規定:「適用兩公約規定,應參照其立法意旨及兩公約人權事務委員會之解釋。」不過,究竟兩公約的規範意旨及相關解釋是什麼?表現在什麼樣的法律文件?具備什麼樣的規範地位及效力?負責兩公約的執行機構一直以來均有一般性意見(general comments)的作成。這些一般性意見作成的依據、其規範地位及效力為何?是否即為我國公約施行法中所稱的解釋而為我國相關機關在適用公約權利時應加以參照?為釐清前述問題,本文探討一般性意見作成的規範依據、功能演變、及其規範地位與效力加以探討,並對其於我國法律體系的進一步適用,提出具體建議。
 
關鍵字
兩公約、公民與政治權利國際公約、經濟社會文化權利國際公約、消除對婦女一切形式歧視公約、一般性意見、一般性建議


Evolving Law: General Comment as Authoritative Interpretations of Human Rights Covenants

Author:Wen-chen Chang (Associate Professor, Law School of National Taiwan Univeristy)

Abstract:

Taiwan ratified both International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in March 2009. At the same time, an Implementation Act was passed to make all of the rights enshrined in the two Covenants directly applicable in the domestic legal regime, having become effective in December 2009. This Implementation Act further demands the applications of the two Covenants to be made reference to the interpretations by the respective instruments. It is thus worthy of analysis on what are these “interpretations” and their legal status and effect. Beginning in the 1980s, the human rights committee, the committee on economic, social and cultural rights, and the committee on the elimination of discriminations against women all have issued “General Comments”. This article is aimed to analyze the legal basis, the evolving functions, and the legal status and legal effects of these general comments and recommendations, and provide suggestions on how these comments and recommendations should be resorted to in the domestic legal system of Taiwan.
 
Keywords
ICCPR, ICESCR, CEDAW, covenants, general comments, general recommendations

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