TAIWAN HRJ
 

兩公約與環境人權的主張

作者:張文貞(國立台灣大學法律學院副教授 環境永續政策與法律研究中心(PLES)成員)、 呂尚雲(國立台灣大學法律學院碩士)

摘要:

《公民與政治權利國際公約》及《經濟社會文化權利公約》,透過《兩公約施行法》的實施,已正式成為我國法律體系的一部份。兩公約所保障的人權規定,也具有國內法律的效力。在這一波全新的人權時刻中,許多民間人權團體都積極參與其間,環境團體卻反而顯得疏離。究竟環境與人權的關係為何?兩公約所保障的人權,是否可以作為環境人權的主張?本文研究發現,環境與人權密切相關,兩公約所保障的人權,不但涵蓋實體環境人權如生命權、健康權、水權、隱私權、家庭權、自決權、文化權及宗教自由等,更包括請求環境資訊、參與環境決策、環境人權受到侵害的司法救濟等程序環境人權。本文認為,不僅人民、環境團體、環境律師應該積極主張這些環境人權,就連各級環境主管機關、法務部及各級法院,也都應該積極適用這些人權保障規定。環境人權在國際人權法上的發展,讓我們清楚看到兩公約與環境人權的密切相關,各國或國際的環境政策與法律議題的思考,再也無法脫離國際人權規範體系。環境與人權、內國與國際的整合與匯流,勢不可擋。
 
關鍵字
環境、人權、兩公約、生命權、健康權、水權、程序環境人權

 


The Two International Human Rights Covenants and the Claim to Environmental Right

Author:Wen-chen Chang (Association Professor, College of Law, Member of Policy and Law Center of Environmental Sustainability, College of Law, National Taiwan University) Sun-yun Lu (LLM of Law National Taiwan University)

Abstract:

Taiwan ratified both International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in March 2009. Meanwhile, an Implementation Act was passed to make all of the rights enshrined in the two Covenants directly applicable in the domestic legal regime, having become effective in December 2009. Taking advantage of such a renewed human rights moment, many attempts were undertaken to utilize the two Covenants rights into domestic public interest litigation. Against this backdrop, this paper is aims at analyzing ways in which these Covenants rights may be made into and linked with environmental claims. Based upon general comments and case laws of the two Covenants, this article argues that both substantive and procedural environmental human rights are available in the two Covenants. These rights include substantively, right to life, right to health, right to water, right of privacy, family right, religious right, minority rights, and procedurally, right to information, right to participation and right to judicial remedy. It is evident that international human rights have occupied a center place in domestic and transnational environmental claims. This development not only demonstrates the interrelation between environment and human rights but perhaps more importantly witnesses the convergence of domestic and international legal regimes, which deserves further scholarly attention and research.
 
Keywords
environment, human rights, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, right to life, right to health, right to water, procedural environmental human Rights

 

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